The ARRL Letter, Vol 23, No 47

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From: ARRL Letter Mailing List [mailto:letter-dlvy@arrl.org]
Sent: Friday, December 03, 2004 1:13 PM
Subject: The ARRL Letter, Vol 23, No 47
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The ARRL Letter
Vol. 23, No. 47
December 3, 2004
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IN THIS EDITION:

* +Truckstop firm faces fine for alleged illegal transceiver sales
* +FCC turns down proposal to standardize AM, SSB bandwidths
* +Astronaut breaks in new ham ticket during school group contact
* +Ham radio comes through in toy drive
* +ARES-RACES-MARS meeting explores enhanced cooperation
* +New SMs elected
*  Solar Update
*  IN BRIEF:      This weekend on the radio ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration Radio amateur's complaint leads to big fine for taxi company    

+International Humanitarian Award deadline looms    

+Senate confirms Adelstein for new FCC term AOR donates digital voice/image units to W1AW

+Available on ARRL Audio News

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==>ALLEGED ILLEGAL "AMATEUR" TRANSCEIVER MARKETING DRAWS HUGE FINE

The FCC has proposed fining Pilot Travel Centers LLC $125,000 for allegedly marketing unauthorized RF devices--specifically, transceivers labeled as Amateur Radio Service (ARS) equipment but intended for use on both Citizens Band and amateur frequencies. CB transmitters must receive FCC certification--formerly called "type acceptance." Amateur Radio equipment does not require FCC certification. The Notice of Apparent Liability (NAL) released November 22 asserts that Pilot continued to market CB transceivers labeled as amateur gear despite multiple citations and warnings.

"Commission field offices issued a total of nine citations to Pilot's corporate headquarters and its retail outlets warning Pilot that future violations would subject Pilot to penalties including civil monetary forfeitures," the NAL said. The Commission alleges that from October 2002 until last July, Pilot, in 47 separate instances, offered for sale various models of non-certificated Galaxy CB transceivers labeled as "amateur radios" that easily could be modified for CB operation. The FCC says in some instances, Pilot employees referred to the units as "CBs."

The ARRL expressed its full support for the FCC's enforcement action against Pilot. "The marketing as 'Amateur Radio' equipment of transceivers that are intended for other uses causes widespread interference to licensed radio amateurs operating within their allocated frequency bands," ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ said on the League's behalf. "We hope that the Commission's long-awaited action will be followed by additional measures taken against marketers who persist in similar violations."

Following up on complaints received between 2001 and 2003, FCC Enforcement Bureau field agents visited 11 Pilot retail outlets in Texas, Oregon, California and Nevada. "At these locations, the stores displayed and offered for sale various models of non-certified CB transceivers marketed as ARS transmitters," the NAL said. The FCC's Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) already had determined that the units could be modified easily for CB operation and were subject to FCC certification prior to marketing.

Responding to the citations, Pilot told the FCC that all of the radios in question were "marketed as amateur radios and, as sold, operate on the 10-meter amateur band." Pilot contended the units fell under Part 97 rules and didn't require FCC certification. In January 2002, the FCC Dallas Field Office advised Pilot that the devices referred to in the Citation had built-in design features to facilitate CB operation and that the FCC considered them CB transmitters that fall under Part 95 rules. The NAL says the Dallas Field Office received no further response from Pilot.

The FCC pointed out that it requires a grant of certification for any Amateur Radio Service transceiver designed to be easily user-modified to extend its operating frequency range into the Citizens Band.

The FCC said that on three days last December, FCC agents purchased Galaxy transceivers from different Pilot retail stores. The OET subsequently determined that all were non-certificated CB transmitters under the FCC's definition. Those sales provided the basis for the proposed fine. Ultimately, the FCC alleged that Pilot offered non-certificated CB transmitters for sale on 13 occasions in 2003 and 2004 "in apparent willful and repeated violation" of the Communications Act of 1934 and FCC rules.

Citing its concern with "the pattern of apparent violations" in the Pilot case, the FCC actually adjusted the base forfeiture amount upward from $91,000 to $125,000. "We are particularly troubled that Pilot continues to violate these rules despite receiving nine citations for marketing non-certified CB transmitters," the Commission said in the NAL. "Pilot's continuing violations of the equipment authorization requirements evince a pattern of intentional noncompliance with and apparent disregard for these rules."

Pilot was given 30 days to respond by paying or appealing the fine.

==>FCC DENIES AM, SSB BANDWIDTH PETITION

The FCC has turned down a Petition for Rule Making that sought to establish specific bandwidth standards for full-carrier AM and SSB Amateur Radio emissions. Michael Lonneke, W0YR, and Melvin Ladisky, W6FDR, filed the petition, designated RM-10740, on May 27, 2003. The FCC said a majority of the approximately 160 members of the amateur community who commented on the petition opposed the concept.

"We conclude that petitioners' request for an amendment of our rules is inconsistent with the Commission's objective of encouraging the experimental aspects of the Amateur Radio service," wrote Public Safety and Critical Infrastructure Division Chief Michael J. Wilhelm, WS6BR. The FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau released the Order November 24. "The petition also fails to demonstrate that a deviation from the Commission's longstanding practice of allowing operating flexibility within the Amateur Service community is either warranted or necessary."

Lonneke and Ladisky had asked the FCC to "remove the ambiguity" in Part 97--specifically §97.307(a) and (b)--and they referenced Enforcement Bureau letters sent to amateurs alleging overly wide SSB signals--sometimes called "Enhanced Single Sideband." Additionally, they said, some contesters purposely adjust their transmitters to exceed what they called "the de facto SSB signal width of approximately 3 kHz" to gain "elbow room" during contests.

On HF frequencies below 28.8 MHz, the petition recommended a maximum 2.8 kHz bandwidth SSB (J3E) emissions and a maximum 5.6 kHz bandwidth for AM (A3E) emissions.

Asserting that most radio amateurs "operate in a manner consistent with the basic purpose of the Amateur Service," the FCC said its existing rules are "adequate to address any noncompliant practices by amateur operators." Current FCC rules require that amateur transmissions not occupy "more bandwidth than necessary for the information rate and emission type being transmitted, in accordance with good amateur practice," and that emissions outside the necessary bandwidth not interfere with operations on adjacent frequencies. The FCC also said the petitioners failed to show that there is "a particular problem" with stations using AM.

The Order said the FCC's Enforcement Bureau will continue to monitor through its complaint process "nonconforming activities" of operators who fail to abide by its rules. "In instances of willful and malicious interference, the Enforcement Bureau will not hesitate to take appropriate action," Wilhelm pledged.

==>ISS EXPEDITION 10 COMMANDER BREAKS IN NEW TICKET FROM SPACE

Astronaut Leroy Chiao, KE5BRW, used his recently minted ham radio license for the first time November 19 to speak with students in southeastern Italy from NA1SS aboard the International Space Station. Arranged by the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program, the QSO also kicked off a series of educational contacts for the Expedition 10 crew, which arrived aboard the ISS in October.

"It's a great pleasure to be addressing you from the International Space Station," Chiao told the youngsters as the contact got under way. "This is my first ham radio contact, so I'm honored to be sharing this experience with you." Chiao got his license in June while training for his ISS mission.

Posing questions from Earth were youngsters from two elementary schools and a comprehensive school in Polignano-a-Mare, ranging in age from 6 to 14. Members of a local Amateur Radio Club set up a satellite Earth station at one elementary school and a backup station at the other elementary school. They also established audio and video links from the station to monitors in the other two schools' auditoriums. Michele Mallardi, IZ7EVR, was the control operator.

Responding to a question about the crew's exercise regimen, Chiao stressed how important it is that he and Expedition 10 Flight Engineer and cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov exercise daily during their six-month duty tour. "We have two hours of exercise scheduled every day," he said. The space travelers work out using either a treadmill or stationary bicycle, Chiao explained. There's also a piece of equipment that "mimics the effects of weightlifting," he said.

One youngster asked the now-standard "food question," and Chiao managed to regionalize his answer. "We have a variety of items we can choose from, including some Italian dishes," he said. "Some of my favorites include classics like spaghetti and also tortellini."

Others wanted to know if the crew sometimes felt alone, how they talked to their families, what they did when they were not working and whether it was easy to acclimate to weightlessness. In all, Chiao managed 18 questions during the approximately eight-minute contact. Just before the ISS went out of range, Mallardi aired the students' farewells and the audience's applause.

Onlookers at the Earth station included not only pupils and teachers but several high-level local, regional and national government officials as well as representatives of the military. The event generated news accounts via several radio and TV outlets and attracted reporting teams from print media that included the Amateur Radio publications Radio Rivista and Radio Kit Elettronica.

ARISS <http://www.rac.ca/ariss/>  is an educational outreach with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA.

==>HAM RADIO DELIVERS THE TOYS

With time still to spare and with the help of key "relay" service by local radio amateurs the ARRL holiday toy drive has collected truckloads of toys--1650 and counting. The drive, which is folding into the United Way's White Doves Holiday Project <http://www.martinvolunteers.org/whitedoves/> , aims to brighten the holidays for children displaced or left homeless by the hurricanes that ravaged Florida earlier this year.

"The toy drive has snowballed and taken on a life of its own," says ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP, who spearheaded the ham radio effort. "Hundreds of groups, clubs and individuals have responded with such energy and cheer that it's already a great holiday season. People just kept going past Thanksgiving and provided more help for the kids than initially imagined for such a simple enterprise." Pitts says the effort generated a lot of goodwill for the Amateur Radio community as well.

Boxes full of toys from radio amateurs nationwide have been pouring in to the United Way of Martin County office in Stuart, Florida. As of November 23, more than 190 clubs, groups and individuals had contributed either toys or checks. Cash donations total nearly $5000, and even more toys and contributions continue arriving daily.

Amateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES) and Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) members have helped transport toys from the United Way office to a storage area at the Martin County Fairgrounds. There, volunteers will sort the toys for distribution to needy families on December 20 and 21.

"We continue to be overwhelmed by the generosity of the ham radio operators," said Carol Hodnett, director of the United Way Volunteer & Community Resource Center, which coordinates the White Doves Holiday Project. "We cannot thank ARRL and its members enough for choosing to support White Doves and the children it serves."

Bill and Nancy Deacon, KD4HST and KD4HSS, are not only ham radio operators but longtime White Doves Holiday Project volunteers and, this year, hurricane victims as well. The Deacons will help to sort toys and assist families on distribution days. Bill Deacon also will hand out turkeys and hams (the White Doves Project also has collected some 20,000 pounds of food). The Deacons' house was flooded during the storms, and they have been living in a FEMA-provided mobile home while repairs are made.

==>ENHANCED COOPERATION FOCUS OF ARES-RACES-MARS MEETING

Enhancing cooperation among Amateur Radio's emergency service organizations was the subject of a groundbreaking conference November 20 in Castle Point, New York. On hand were Amateur Radio Emergency Service
(ARES), Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) and Army, Air Force and Navy-Marine Corps Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS) leaders. While informal cooperation is nothing new to ARES, RACES and MARS members--many of whom participate in all three organizations--the focus of the Castle Point gathering was on launching more formal regional and national collaboration. ARRL Field Organization/Public Service Team Leader Steve Ewald, WV1X, said he was pleased to be able to participate.

"I thought it was an excellent meeting, and it should lay a foundation for further cooperation between ARRL and our Field Organization and MARS," he said afterward. Ewald also used the occasion to call attention to the ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications courses and the tuition grants available for radio amateurs completing them. Joining him under the League banner were ARRL Field Organization appointees Pete Cecere, N2YJZ, the Eastern New York Section Manager, and Tom Carrubba, KA2D, the New York City-Long Island Section Emergency Coordinator.

Newly designated New York Army MARS-ARRL Liaison Officer Richard Meirowitz, WA2ELE, organized the session, and New York MARS Director Steve Pertgen, W2FXJ, chaired the meeting at the Castle Point Veterans Administration Medical Center.

Keynote speaker was Army MARS Eastern Area Coordinator Robert Hollister, AAA9E/N7INK, from Ft Huachuca, Arizona (and the author of "A Portable NVIS Antenna," which will appear in the January 2005 QST). He expressed the hope that MARS management and ARRL would join forces to pursue the goal of interoperability. To jump start that initiative, Hollister provided an overview of the US Department of Defense (DoD) MARS program and its emphasis on providing emergency communication support to a wide variety of military and government response agencies.

In September, Hollister asked MARS stations and nets to coordinate with ARES/RACES and local ham radio operators to assist in handling hurricane-related health-and-welfare traffic. Amateur Radio and the military already collaborate informally each May during the Armed Forces Day communications tests, when hams and military stations engage in crossband contacts. Several pilot operations also have employed ARES/RACES members in past Army Reserve exercises at the local level.

Among proposals was a suggestion to seek FCC permission to conduct year-round interoperability training and emergency operation. It also was proposed that the amateur community assist MARS in providing early warning notification of emergency situations--so-called "Essential Elements of Information" messages--for relay to the DoD and the Department of Homeland Security.

Following Hollister's briefing, MARS Eastern Area Emergency Operations Chief John Scoggin, W3JKS, of Wilmington, Delaware, discussed last summer's nationwide Grecian Firebolt 2004 (GF-04) Army Signal communication exercise--the biggest MARS drill ever. At Pertgen's suggestion, Meirowitz tested the feasibility of MARS-ARES-RACES collaboration during GF-04, and ARES volunteers from eastern New York took part in the exercise, which involved a homeland defense/homeland security scenario. Meirowitz called it "a small but successful joint effort." Ewald noted that the Grecian Firebolt exercises were similar in nature to the ARRL's Simulated Emergency Test each fall.

Hollister suggested that ARES/RACES participation in the next annual Army Signal exercise be worked out on a state-by-state basis. Also proposed was the designation of additional MARS-ARRL liaison officers at the state level.--Bill Sexton N1IN

==>NEBRASKA, WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA ELECT NEW SECTION MANAGERS

In the only three contested races in the current Section Manager (SM) election cycle, the ARRL Nebraska and West Central Florida Sections have elected new section leaders. New York City-Long Island Section members re-elected their incumbent SM.

In Nebraska, Matthew Anderson, KA0BOJ, outpolled Dan Steinhoff, W7UP, 270 to 80, to become SM there. From Ashland, Anderson has been licensed for 28 years and is ARRL Emergency Coordinator for Saunders County. He will succeed Bill McCollum, KE0XQ, the SM for the past decade, who decided not to seek another term.

In West Central Florida, Gerald "Dee" Turner, N4GD, of Pinellas Park, was the winner over John Townsley, AE4GB, 495 to 224. Licensed since 1991, Turner is vice president of the St Petersburg Amateur Radio Club where he has taught Amateur Radio classes and serves as an ARRL volunteer examiner. He'll take over from Dave Armbrust, AE4MR, West Central Florida's SM since the section's establishment in 2000, who did not seek a new term.

Incumbent New York City-Long Island SM George Tranos, N2GA, of Bellport, overcame a challenge from Steve Barreres, K2CX, 534 to 351 votes. Tranos has served as SM since 1998.

In Eastern Massachusetts, Mike Neilsen, W1MPN, was unopposed in his bid to become the new SM. He'll take over from Phil Temples, K9HI, who didn't run for another term.

Incumbent SMs in six other ARRL Sections ran unopposed and were declared elected for new two-year terms. They include Dale Bagley, K0KY, Missouri; Rich Beaver, N3SRJ, Western Pennsylvania; Jim Boehner, N2ZZ, South Carolina; Tom Dick, KF2GC, Northern New York; Jean Priestley, KA2YKN, Southern New Jersey; Dale Williams, WA8EFK, Michigan.

Ballots were counted and verified November 23 at ARRL Headquarters. Terms of office for successful candidates begin January 1, 2005.

==>SOLAR UPDATE

Propagation maven Tad "I Live for the Sun" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: Sunspot numbers and geomagnetic activity were both up slightly over the past week. Average daily sunspot numbers were low, rising over the past week from 50 to 55.1. Average daily solar flux rose from 103.8 to 110.9 over the same period. During November the average daily sunspot numbers were 70.5. This is slightly lower than the 77.9 average for October. Geomagnetic indices were unsettled over the past week, with daily A indices for both mid-latitude and high latitude in the mid to high teens.

Over the next few days, solar flux should decline. Predicted daily solar flux for Friday, December 3, through Monday, December 6, is predicted to be 105, 100, 100 and 95. Solar flux should reach a near-term low of 90 around December 8-9. Geomagnetic conditions should remain quiet until December 6, when the predicted planetary A index is 20. This may be far enough off to have good quiet conditions for the ARRL 160-Meter Contest <http://www.arrl.org/contests/rules/2004/160-Meters.html>   this weekend.

Sunspot numbers for November 18 through 24 were 77, 61, 40, 27, 28, 45 and 72, with a mean of 50. The 10.7 cm flux was 104, 102.2, 99.3, 100.9, 106.3, 106.9 and 107.3, with a mean of 103.8. Estimated planetary A indices were 3, 4, 18, 16, 10, 5 and 6, with a mean of 8.9. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 4, 3, 12, 9, 6, 4 and 7, with a mean of 6.4.

Sunspot numbers for November 25 through December 1 were 61, 61, 64, 66, 40, 42 and 52, with a mean of 55.1. The 10.7 cm flux was 109.4, 111.1, 110.3, 112.8, 111.4, 110.6 and 111, with a mean of 110.9. Estimated planetary A indices were 20, 13, 10, 14, 15, 15 and 13 with a mean of 14.3. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 19, 16, 10, 16, 20, 16 and 11, with a mean of 15.4.

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==>IN BRIEF:

* This weekend on the radio: The ARRL 160-Meter Contest, the TARA RTTY Melee, the Wake-Up! QRP Sprint, the CIS DX Contest (CW), and the ARCI Holiday Spirits Homebrew Sprint are the weekend of December 4-5. The ARS Spartan Sprint is December 7. JUST AHEAD: The ARRL 10-Meter Contest, the Fall NA Meteor Scatter Rally and the Great Colorado Snowshoe Run are the weekend of December 11-12. The Russian 160-Meter Contest is December 17. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/>  for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration: Registration for the Technician Licensing course (EC-010) remains open through Sunday, December 12. Classes begin Friday, December 24. With the assistance of a mentor, EC-010 students learn everything they need to know to pass the FCC Technician class license examination. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce/>  or contact the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Program Department, cce@arrl.org

* Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration: Registration for the ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level I on-line course
(EC-001) opens Monday, December 6, at 1201 AM EST and will remain open through the December 11-12 weekend or until all available seats have been filled. Class begins Friday, December 24. Radio amateurs 55 and up are strongly encouraged to participate. Thanks to our grant sponsors--the Corporation for National and Community Service and the United Technologies Corporation--the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be reimbursed after successful completion of the course. During this registration period, seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served basis. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce> . For more information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG, cce@arrl.org ; 860-594-0340.

* Radio amateur's complaint leads to big fine for taxi company: A radio amateur's complaint of interference in the 70 cm band has prompted the FCC to fine a Portland, Oregon, taxi company $12,000. The FCC Forfeiture Order
(NOF) released November 18 said the violations involved Portland Taxicab's operation on 452.250 and 457.250 MHz without valid FCC authorization, transmission of spurious emissions resulting in harmful interference to an Amateur Radio station and failure to properly identify. In March 2003, John N. Stein, AB7F, complained to the FCC's Portland Office of interference in the vicinity of 440.700 to 440.780 MHz. An FCC agent traced the interfering signal to an apparently unauthorized repeater station operating on 452.250/457.250 MHz. The agent also measured spurious emissions falling within the 70 cm amateur band at approximately 55 dB below the repeater's 452.250 MHz transmitter. The FCC traced the repeater's control point to Portland Taxicab and issued oral warnings to the companies office manager, who told the FCC the station, WPRJ576, would change to its authorized frequencies and fix its transmitter. When the problems continued, however, the FCC issued a Notice of Apparent Liability. In response, the taxi company did not dispute the violations but said it had dismissed the office manager and resolved the interference problem. The company also asked the FCC to cancel or reduce the proposed fine, but the FCC determined the forfeiture should stand. "The improper actions by an employee cannot save Portland Taxicab from responsibility for its violations," the FCC concluded. It also said the company failed to submit acceptable documentation of its inability to pay. The taxi company was given 30 days to pay the fine.

* International Humanitarian Award deadline looms: Nominations close December 31 for the 2004 ARRL International Humanitarian Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/field/awards/humanitarian.html> . The award is conferred upon an amateur or amateurs who demonstrate devotion to human welfare, peace and international understanding through Amateur Radio. The League established the annual prize to recognize Amateur Radio operators who have used ham radio to provide extraordinary service to others in times of crisis or disaster. A committee appointed by the League's President recommends the award recipient(s) to the ARRL Board, which makes the final decision. The committee is now accepting nominations from Amateur Radio, governmental or other organizations that have benefited from extraordinary service rendered by an Amateur Radio operator or group. Amateur Radio is one of the few telecommunication services that allow people throughout the world from all walks of life to meet and talk with each other, thereby spreading goodwill across political boundaries. Nominations should include a summary of the nominee's actions that qualify the individual (or individuals) for this award, plus verifying statements from at least two people having first-hand knowledge of the events warranting the nomination as well as names and addresses of all references. Nominations and supporting materials must be submitted in writing in English to ARRL International Humanitarian Award, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111 USA by December 31, 2004. The winner of the ARRL International Humanitarian Award receives an engraved plaque and a profile in QST and other ARRL venues.

* Senate confirms Adelstein for new FCC term: The US Senate has confirmed the White House nomination of FCC Commissioner Jonathan Adelstein to remain on the FCC until June 30, 2008. Adelstein said he was gratified to have the opportunity to continue to serve. "The issues before us are critical to our economy and touch people in deeply personal ways," he said in a statement following his November 20 confirmation. "I will continue to promote the interests of the American public in having access to the best possible communications opportunities in the world." ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, wrote Adelstein this week to congratulate him on his appointment and confirmation. "It is good to know that you will continue to be in a position to ensure that the legitimate concerns of radio amateurs and other users of the radio spectrum are reflected in the Commission's decisions," Sumner said. One of two Democrats on the five-member FCC, Adelstein joined the FCC in November 2002. A protégé of and former aide to US Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle (D-SD), Adelstein is the first South Dakotan ever to serve on the FCC. The term of the FCC's other Democrat, Commissioner Michael J. Copps, does not expire until next year.

* AOR donates digital voice/image units to W1AW: AOR USA has donated two ARD9800 <http://www.aorusa.com/ard9800.html>  digital voice/image units to Maxim Memorial Station W1AW. The ARD9800 Fast Radio Modem adds digital SSB voice capability to any HF transceiver without having to modify the radio. With the addition of an optional memory module, the unit also enables transmission of high-quality digital images. AOR USA Executive Vice President Taka Nakayama, KW6I, visited W1AW and ARRL Headquarters November
15 to present the ARD9800 units. "AOR is proud to bring digital HF voice communications to W1AW," Nakayama said. "We believe Hiram Percy Maxim would be genuinely excited at this leap in technology." Accepting on behalf of ARRL was W1AW Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q. "We thank AOR USA very much for these units, which are installed as part of the equipment complement in two of our operating studios," Carcia said. "The ARD9800 enhances W1AW's efforts to keep up with current technology and will provide visiting operators a chance to experiment with digital audio on HF." Nakayama said thousands of hams in Japan and Europe already are enjoying high-quality digital audio with ARD9800 units and DX contacts are not unusual. With the ARD9800's digital audio, he pointed out, background static and noise are eliminated and audio quality improved. Several independent Web sites have been set up to arrange digital QSOs with other ARD9800 users, and links to some of these sites are available on the AOR Web site <http://www.aorusa.com> .

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